We know it well because we manufacture complete technological lines for juice and concentrate production. We'll describe this production process for apple juice. In Poland, every year, there are tones of apples from plantations.
Fruit Pulp Processing
Their vast portion is exported and the remaining part is sold unprocessed or it is used as a raw material for producing juice and concentrates. The production process of fruit juice and concentrates begins with raw material purchasing. Fruit is verified in terms of quality before unloading.
It should look healthy and be ripe. There are two unloading methods: wet known as hydro-unloading and dry. Both methods are used for unloading and transporting apples to silos of pre-production warehouse. The delivery scope of dry unloading system includes:. Apples should be stored in small prisms.
The producer aims at the fastest processing of the raw material received in order to prevent putrefactive processes and quality deterioration. Fruits are washed depending on the unloading method applied: in two or in three stages. Fruits taken from silos by a sorting unit are transferred to the pulp preparation section. Another stage of juice production starts: fruit pulp preparation and processing. Raw materials from pre-production warehouse are transferred to the dosing units known as sorting units.
The task of the sorting unit is to dose apples evenly to the vertical screw feeder known as elevator. Sorting units have designs individually adjusted to the capacity of elevator and floatable chutes.
Sorted material falls down to the mill. Replaceable or adjustable mill elements, such as: knives, sieves, pressing rollers enable adjusting to the quality of raw material and obtaining optimal pulp parameters.Orange processing plants are located in the vicinity of the fruit growing area.
Fruit should be processed as soon as possible after harvesting because fruit deteriorates quickly at the high temperatures found in citrus-growing areas. Orange products, on the other hand, are produced in a form that allows them to be stored for extended periods and shipped over long distances. In the orange industry, the basic unit of reporting crop and plant intake is commonly the fruit box.
A box of oranges is defined as containing In Florida, small and medium-sized plants typically process million boxestonnes per season, the large plants up to 25 million boxes.
Most Brazilian citrus plants have much higher capacity. In most other orange-growing regions, citrus processing plants are considerably smaller than those in Florida and Brazil. Figure 5. Zoom Figure 5. Fruit is delivered in trucks that discharge their loads at the fruit reception area. Then follows pregrading by manual inspection to remove any unsuitable fruit. Sound fruit is conveyed to storage bins. Damaged fruit goes directly to the feed mill. Extraction involves squeezing or reaming juice out of either whole or halved oranges by means of mechanical pressure.
After final washing and inspection, the fruit is separated according to size into different streams or lanes. Individual oranges are directed to the most suitable extractor in order to achieve optimum juice yield. As the extraction operation determines juice yield and quality, the correct setting of extractor operating conditions is very important.
The finishing process is a mechanical separation method based on sieving. The juice stream is further clarified by centrifugation. The pulp stream, containing pieces of ruptured juice sacs and segment walls, may then go to pulp recovery or to pulp washing. Within the evaporator circuit, the juice is first pre-heated and held at pasteurization temperature. During the evaporation process, volatile flavour components flash off and can be recovered in an essence recovery unit.
Juice concentrate is cooled and blended with other production batches as required to level out fluctuations in quality. It then goes to frozen storage in tanks or drums as FCOJ, sometimes for several years. An alternative to concentrate production is to process the juice at single strength as an NFC product. Clarified juice is pasteurized before storage. Deoiling may be required to reduce oil levels in the juice, and deaeration to remove oxygen is part of good practice.
NFC is stored in bulk either frozen or in aseptic conditions. Storage may be up to a year because while consumption is year-round, production is seasonal. The clean pulp stream is then concentrated in a primary finisher. After heat treatment, the pulp slurry is typically concentrated further before being sent to frozen storage. If the pulp fraction is not recovered for commercial sale, pulp from the final juice finishers and clarifiers can be washed with water to recover juice solubles.Thank you Your Enquiry has been sent successfully.
Plant comprises following sections:. Fresh tomatoes would be received at reception section and passed on to the fruit washing grading section. Tomatoes from reception will be washed in washing section to remove outer dirt and foreign matter from the fruit skin.
Washed tomato would be feed to the inspection cum sorting conveyor where unwanted, damaged tomatoes would be separated out manually. Washed graded tomatoes would be passed on to the fruit juice extraction and processing unit. From fresh tomatoes the juice will be extracted out in juice extraction system. The outer skin, seed and fiber of fruits would be separated out from extraction machine and then disposed manually.
Extracted juice is passed to the heat treatment to avoid the quality degradation. Again it is fine pulped in Pulper cum finisher to get finished juice. This juice will go for further processing to juice concentrate to concentrate it to 12 Brix for tomato puree, 14 Brix for tomato ketchup or Brix for tomato paste.
These fruit mills are designed to crush the fruits and vegetables to extract juice and pulp. After the tomatoes, Apple, Guava, Carrot, Papaya have been washed and sorted, selected ones are chopped, in this process the tomatoes are processed into small pieces, resulting in a mixture composed of liquid and solid parts. Sun Engineers chopping system uses a crushing mill containing a rotor that spins and crushes the tomatoes at high speeds. The resulting paste is pump able and ready to receive the thermal treatment.
Enzymatic inactivation by a thermal treatment will follow. Consists of shell body having inside serration. Rotor is also having outside serration.
To make paste. The machine runs stability and easy to operate. After the tomatoes have been washed and sorted, selected ones are chopped, in this process the tomatoes are processed into small pieces, resulting in a mixture composed of liquid and solid parts.
Our lines are characterized from long-experience know-how, strong construction and energy saving. Shiva Engineers is composed of an extractor and of a refiner, complete with a double horizontal cylindrical body a double motor shaft, a double bearing structure a three phase electric motor, two safety devices and an internal washing device with sprayers with water and steam on two levels.
Upper Stage Body of refiner is made of S. S with pulping screen consist of 3 mm perforation outside and 1. S with pulping screen consist of 1. Rotor is perfectly aligned inside the screen. Washing can be done in place of body and screen Rotor is made of S.
S blades are fitted in hub S. S Polished Pulper arrangement to remove hub from shaft easily. Rotor is supported by SKF make suitable heavy duty ball bearing at two places.
Electrical motor foot mounted is mounted on frame. Electrical Panel with V.Basic installations or services. Equipment for a small-scale industrial plant.
When considering the setting up of a fruit and vegetable processing plant, whether it be a cottage industry or a small industrial scale system, the first point to bear in mind is the infrastructure required to properly lodge all of the necessary equipment.
Some time must thus be devoted to coordinate two aspects that are vital to the development of a project of this nature, namely costs and the quality of the infrastructure needed to achieve the established goals. It must always be borne in mind that since the food to be processed is intended for human consumption, the infrastructure must meet several requirements. The basic general aspects of such requirements will be analyzed in this chapter. The infrastructure comprises different aspects of a project's implementation.
Issues like physical layout, basic services or installations and equipment must thus be taken into account.
The physical layout of a plan of this nature may be very simple, as it refers to a basic production system, involving small volumes and simple products, from a technological point of view. Nevertheless, in the case of a cottage industry and a small industrial scale system alike, simplicity must never neglect the basic principles governing industrial health and hygiene, which must characterize a food production system.
Several different processes take place on the site where the production activity is performed, from the reception and conservation of raw materials, to the storage of finished products. One aspect that must be borne in mind relates to construction details, which determine a plant's capacity to meet two objectives: to adjust to the production of foods and to ensure a sufficiently long shelf life.
However, when considering home or small-scale industrial processing facilities, the cost of construction is an important factor which must be taken into account. The building materials must be as light as possible, easy to readapt and install, considering that often the system users develop the plan themselves, by means of self-construction methods. The buildings materials must be easy to readapt because these home-made systems are rather dynamic, that is, they require frequent changes or must adjust to different processes, so that the space that they occupy may be exploited all year round.
On the other hand, these systems must be considered "expandable" to accommodate possible evolutions in time. In addition to the previously mentioned characteristics, the materials must be easy to wash and disinfect, especially those in the clean areas of the processing rooms. Complex type of construction, resulting in the creation of places that are not easily accessible for cleaning must be avoided, for they may turn into bird nests, and contamination foci for rodents, insects, and of course, micro-organisms.
Requirements pertaining to the materials and construction characteristics of the sites do not vary greatly for home processing or small-scale industrial plants. The basic difference lies in the equipment and the way it is set up in the processing lines.
The home-processing system is temporary and versatile, and there are no special areas devoted to a single process. In general, all of the premises serve several purposes, according to the type of process and raw material being used.FRUIT PULP IN ASEPTIC BAGS IN DRUMS
The small-scale industrial system, on the other hand, is more complex in its organization, and therefore specific activities are carried out in determined areas. Nevertheless, the general requirements for both systems are similar, the difference being in the way such requirements are met. Some of the aspects that may be considered important in relation to the architectural and construction elements are listed below:.
The ceiling and walls of the processing room must be of washable and easily dried materials; they must be neither absorbent nor porous. However, if artificial lights must be used, they should not hinder activities in any way.
Artificial lighting must be protected, to prevent fragments of glass from falling into the product as it is being processed, in case of accidents. Poor ventilation in highly enclosed and densely populated premises may generate defects. It is also important to provide for the elimination of heavily contaminating odours, even if they are not necessarily toxic.
On the other hand, excess ventilation, especially in places characterized by great aerial contamination external to the processing site, dust and insects essentially, may prove to be counterproductive.
Appropriate ventilation must therefore be based on an efficient system controlling the access of foreign material from the external environment. Like the walls and ceiling of the processing room, the floor must be washable, to ensure compliance with the premises' hygienic and health standards. The floor must also be sloped to allow appropriate drainage, avoiding at all costs the formation of pools in the processing area.
At the same time, care must be taken to prevent the floor from being slippery. These are some examples of the features that must characterize a fruit and vegetable processing site to guarantee a quality product suitable for human consumption. Three basic services are required for the operation of a system as the one in question: electrical power, drinking water and the disposal of waste waters.Orange juice is defined in the United States Code of Federal Regulations as the "unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the species Citrus sinensis or of the citrus hybrid commonly called Ambersweet.
Orange juice is commonly marketed in three forms: as a frozen concentrate, which is diluted with water after purchase; as a reconstituted liquid, which has been concentrated and then diluted prior to sale; or as a single strength, unconcentrated beverage called NFC or Not From Concentrate. Citrus fruits, like oranges, have been cultivated for the last 4, years in southern China and Southeast Asia. One variety, the citron, was carried to the Middle East some-time between and B.
Arab traders transported oranges to eastern Africa and the Middle East sometime between and A. From there, they were carried to the New World by explorers where they spread to Florida and Brazil by the sixteenth century. By the s, citrus fruits achieved worldwide distribution.
In the s, the demand for them greatly increased because physicians discovered that drinking the juice of oranges or other citrus fruits could prevent scurvy, a vitamin deficiency disease. The popularity of orange juice dramatically increased again with the development of the commercial orange juice industry in the late s. In its early days, the juice industry primarily relied on salvaged fruit, which was unsuitable for regular consumption because it was misshapen, badly colored or blemished.
In the s, development of porcelain-lined cans and advances in pasteurization techniques led to improved juice quality and the industry expanded significantly. Then, inscientists found a way to concentrate fruit juice in a vacuum and freeze it without destroying the flavor or vitamin content. Frozen concentrated juices were first sold in the United States duringand they became widely available and popular. After World War II, most Americans stopped squeezing their own juice and concentrated juice became the predominant form.
With the increase in home refrigerators, frozen concentrate became even more popular. The demand for frozen juices had a profound impact on the citrus industry and spurred the growth of the Florida citrus groves.
Frozen concentrates remained the most popular form until when reconstituted and NFC juices first out-sold the frozen type.
Today, commercial aseptic packaging allows RTD juices to be marketed without refrigerated storage. The primary ingredient in orange juice is, of course, oranges. Oranges are members of the rue family Rutaceaeand citrus trees belong to the genus Citrus. Oranges, along with all citrus fruits, are a special type of berry botanists refer to as a hesperidium.
Popular types of oranges include navel, Mandarin, and Valencia. A blend of different types of oranges is generally used to provide a specific flavor and to ensure freedom from bitterness.
Selection of oranges for juice is made on the basis of a number of factors such as variety and maturity of the fruit. The fruit contains a number of natural materials that contribute to the overall flavor and consistency of the juice including water, sugars primarily sucrose, fructose, and glucoseorganic acids primarily citric, malic, and tartaricand flavor compounds including various esters, alcohols, ketones, lactones, and hydrocarbons. Preservatives such as sulfur dioxide or sodium benzoate are allowed by federal regulation in orange juice although the amounts are strictly controlled.
Sweeteners may be added in the form of corn syrup, dextrose, honey, or even artificial sweeteners. More often, though, citric acid is added to provide tartness. Manufacturers may also fortify juices with extra vitamins or supplemental nutrients such as vitamin C, and less commonly, vitamins A and E, and beta carotene.
Beta carotene is naturally present in oranges, but only to a small degree. There is some concern about the stability of these added vitamins because they do not survive the heating process very well. Calcium in the form of tricalcium phosphate, is also frequently added to orange juice. The second type of extraction has the oranges cut in half before the juice is removed. The fruits are sliced as they pass by a stationary knife and the halves are then picked up by rubber suction cups and moved against plastic serrated reamers.
The rotating reamers express the juice as the orange halves travel around the conveyor line.Jul 25, Articles. Fruit pulps can be cold stored for long periods of time. Adds economic value to fruits. Avoids fruit wasting Consumption of fruit pulp is rising continuously due to the consumer preference for healthy food products. In the food processing industryfruit pulp, a commonly found product, is often used as an ingredient in manufacturing of fruit jams, jellies, nectars, puddings, baby food products and dairy beverages.
Fruits are weighed and evaluated in terms of quality. Pre-selection is done in order to exclude fruits improper for pulp production.
Fruits and Vegetables Byproducts And Uses In Food Processing Industries
Fruits are washed, and undergo a sanitization process with chlorinated water ppm, according to fruit type. Then, fruits are rinsed to remove chlorine residue. Maturation degree of fruits is evaluated; only the fruits suitable for obtaining good quality pulp are forwarded to the processing zone. During processing, pulp finishers equipped with sieves of different meshes are used to retain peels, seeds and other fruit portions.
If required, acidulants or preservatives are added at the homogenization stage. The product is packed and stored at suitable temperatures to maintain nutritional, organoleptic and microbiological characteristics of the fruit pulp.
Your Name required. Your Email required. Your Message. Fruit Pulp Processing Jul 25, Articles. Post Views: 2, Get Free Consulting Now!!!They are rich in nutrients, therefore, have many health benefits. Fruits and Vegetables Byproducts Discoverfoodtech. A large number of by-products are produced from food industries.
These are the secondary products generated during manufacturing of primary products. This includes peels, seeds, leaves, residual pulp, stems, stones, and discarded pieces from a variety of sources.
These by-products are the good source of bioactive compounds, nutraceuticals, and other functional foods. Therefore, there is a healthy trend towards by-product utilization and value addition. Therefore, waste needs to be utilized properly and efficiently. Reducing waste and using it for by-products a have a good impact on climate. By-products from food industries are rich in nutrients so have many health benefits. By-product utilization gives another source of income to industries, so it helps to increase economic productivity.
By-products obtained from orange pulp and peel after juice extraction is the cheap and abundant source of dietary fiber. Dietary fiber powder can be prepared from this. After proper washing, it is dried at a temperature below 65 0 C for 12 hrs.
Care should be taken that functional properties and polyphenols, tannins, anthocyanin like compounds remain unchanged. This powder can be used for value addition in various food products.
There is a large amount of potato peel is generated as potato is mostly consumed vegetable worldwide. Potato peel is rich in fibers. Fibers play an important role in human health and help in the prevention of diseases. To prepare potato peel fibers, potato peels are washed with water and dried in an oven at 60 0 C for 12 hrs. It should be stored under refrigeration.
It is produced during the carrot juice extraction process. This solid waste is a rich source of carotenoids, fibers and phenolics compounds. After processing, it can be used in making carrot based condensed milk. The powder can be prepared by vacuum drying and it can be used as a good fiber source in many bakeries and other food products.